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It was the first city in England, which built itsown airport in 1919. Now the Manchester airport connects the city with different foreign countries.Manchester is also an important cultural centre. It is famous for publishing books and magazines, and ithas many good libraries, museums and art galleries. The famous Hall Orchestra is in Manchester, and itgives concerts two times a week. Manchester has good theatres and they often invite the Royal Balletfrom London and the Royal Shakespeare Company from Stratford-on-Avon to come and perform inManchester.Manchester has a distinctive atmosphere brought about by physical characteristics of the Victorianage. The manufacture of cotton goods was responsible for changing the town into the great city it becamein the last century.The first thing the visitor notices is the number of the enormous warehouses and factories, railwaystations and markets, offices and banks, municipal buildings and museums.

All seems to be very grand,well-built and magnificently solid.BIRMINGHAMBirmingham is a surprizing place. That's because there are so many different aspects to it. Historically,of course, it was a manufacturing city which grew up in the Industrial Revolution. But in the 1990s,although manufacturing industry and commerce were still vital to the prosperity of the region and made ita very exciting and energetic centre. But there are other signs due to which Birmingham has confirmed itsposition as a major European city.The National Exhibition Centre and Birmingham International Airport bring visitors to the city from allover the world.

The massive International Convention Centre, Symphony Hall - the acclaimed home ofthe City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra are all evidence that there is an optimistic and imaginativemood in Birmingham. The National Indoor Arena is the venue for major sporting events and concerts.The Birmingham Royal Ballet is based at the Hippodrome. There are three Professional theatres inBirmingham. The City Art Gallery has an outstanding eolation of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.The City is at the centre of the national motorway network.

There are coach and rail services all overthe country, and if you're going further, Birmingham International Airport has direct flights to Europeancities and connections all over ths world.But Birmingham, Britain's "second city", is the most important industrial town Because of the greatvariety of its industries people call it" The City of 1,500 Frades" in the district called "Black Country".All the pins and needles in English households are probably of Birmingham I make.

The pens thatpeople write with, the spoons and forks they use for dinner and the glasses which they drink out of aremostly products of Birmingham indus try. It is quite possible that motor-cars, the bicycles, the railwaycarriages and the rails they run on in England, the radio and television sets, etc., have come fromBirmingham.Birmingham is a busy, thriving and exciting city.STRATFORD-ON-AVONStratford-on-Avon, famous the world over as the birthplace of William Shake-speare, is situated in theheart of England.

Shakespeare's birthplace is a small house with small rooms in the centre of Stratfordon-Avon. When Shakespeare became successful in London he bought the biggest house in Stratford-onAvon called New Palace to retire to.The Royal Theatre was opened on Shakespeare's birthday in 1879 and destroyed by fire in 1926. Thepresent building designed by Elizabeth Scott was completed in 1932. The theatre is now one of the mostcomfortable and best equipped in the world, with its own workshops, a library, a picture gallery and arestaurant. The whole season the Theatre gives only Shakespeare's plays.

It's a great pleasure to seethere "Romeo and Juliet", "Twelfth Night", "Hamlet" and many others. They are on not only in the RoyalTheatre, but all over the world.The Shakespeare Centre was built to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare's birth(1556). The Centre serves a dual purpose. It is the headquarter of the British Trust which administersproperties and memorials of the poet and provides facilities for educational and academic work.BRISTOLIf a traveler wants to catch a glimpse of old and new together, he should go to Bristol.

The story ofBristol is plainly told through its rivers and docks, through its sea faring past full of adventure. TheRomans moored their boats at the edge of the River Avon, while the Norman's shipped wine and othergoods into Bristol by seaA few hundred years later in the gloomy Middle ages John Cabot and his son set sail in the Matthewand reached the North America. In those ages when so little was known about geography, Bristolmerchants crossed the oceans, traded and brought back huge amounts of many expensive goods.Centuries later thousands of setlers went to the new land to find a brighter future.The spirit of adventure and exploration is in the heart of Bristol.

There are quite a few monuments inBristol reminding of its historical past.Words and Phrases:to survive - выжитьdamage - повреждениеto damage - повреждатьhonour - честьto honour - удостоить честиtailor - портнойto occur - происходитьto retire - уходить в отставкуtremendous - огромныйto stretch - простиратьсяto destruct - разрушатьto resort - посещать, быватьdestruction - разрушениеrush hours - "часы пик"empty-пустойdistinction -распознаваниеIncorporation - объединение distinct - отчетливый, ясныйto contain - содержатьdistinctively- ясно, явно, определенноabbey-аббатствоdistinctive -характерныйlayout- планwarehouse - товарный складBeefeaters - лейб-гвардейцы to climb - подниматьсяto incorporate - включать, объединятьto thrive - процветать, преуспеватьTasks:1. Study the text about cities and towns.2.

Ask your group-mate whether she (he) knows anything about historical places in London.3. Make up short dialogues about famous places of the British capital.4. Situational practice:a. Imagine that you are in Edinburgh: what places of interest would interest you most of all?b. Imagine that you are in Stratford-on-Avon: what theatre would you like to visit and why?5. Speak about: .a. the history of Manchester;b. Cardiff as the great commercial port;c. the city of Birmingham; cultural life in Wales.d. the main street of Edinburgh;e.

the story of Bristol;"AN ENGLISHMAN'S HOME IS HIS CASTLE"Everyone in Britain dreams of living in a detached house, which means a separate building. It is usuallybuilt of brick and slate. A detached house is of "non-classical" shape with a lot of little corners, whichmake the house very cosy. In front of the house there's always a beautiful garden with smooth lawn. Thegarage is hidden away so it doesn't spoil the rural feeling.Every Englishman wants privacy.

And a large, detached house not only ensures privacy, but it's also astatus symbol. Such a house is a dream for most people. But even a small house with a garden is verydear to the hearts of many people in Britain.Most people don't like blocks of flats, because they provide the least amount of Privacy. Flats areusually much cheaper.

(In fact, flats are the cheapest kind of home). People who live in them cannotafford to have a house of their own.Their dislike of living in flats is very strong. In 1950s, for example, millions poor people lived in old,cold, uncomfortable houses of the 19th century, with n°f bathroom. But when they were given new blocksof flats to live in, with centn heating and bathrooms, more comfortable and cosy they hated their newhome! They felt lonely without their gardens and neighbours.In Britain these "tower blocks" (or "high-rise blocks") were a complete failure because they didn't suitBritish attitudes; while in other countries people are veni happy in modern flats. Nowadays only 40% ofthe population live in high-rises.Law and custom in Britain support a clear separation between what is public and what is private.

Toemphasize this division, people prefer to live in a house, set back from the road. This way they can havea garden in front of the house, which separates them from the world. This area may not be very big, but itallows people to have a low fence or a hedge round It. Such a fence announces that here the privateproperty begins.Flats don't give people enough privacy. Not having a separate entrance to the outside world doesn't suitBritish tastes.

People like to choose the colour of their own front door or window frames. Besides, theycan have a small garden of their own in front of the house, even if the outside territory is very small.English people usually have flower-beds with paths in between, or just patches of grass to express theirindividuality.British houses are thought to be very cold, maybe the coldest in Europe. But it is not so. About 3/4 ofhouses now have central heating. The most important thing for British people is to feel cosy - that is tocreate a warm atmosphere (even if it's not warm in the house). In Britain many people have a great desireto have a "real fire". Afire-place is a traditional symbol of warmth.

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