N. Kryazheva - The United States and the United Kingdom. Past and Present (pdf), страница 12
PDF-файл из архива "N. Kryazheva - The United States and the United Kingdom. Past and Present (pdf)", который расположен в категории "книги и методические указания". Всё это находится в предмете "лингвистическая культура" из седьмого семестра, которые можно найти в файловом архиве МГУ им. Ломоносова. Не смотря на прямую связь этого архива с МГУ им. Ломоносова, его также можно найти и в других разделах. .
Просмотр PDF-файла онлайн
Текст 12 страницы из PDF
70 % of the world's mail is written in English, and 80 % of all information in electronic retrievalsystems is stored in English.But the English language began to spread throughout the world only in the 17th century, when the firstEnglish settlements arose in North America. The rapid growth of population in the United States in thefollowing years increased the number of English-speakers greatly. In the course of massive migration ofpeople in the 19th and 20th centuries English became a mother tongue or one of the officical languagesin Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the South Africa Re-pablic that finally established English as aworld language.Nowadays English is the most wide-spread language geographically, second one only to Chinese in thenumber of people who speak it (there are 400 million speakers of English against 700 million Chinesespeakers; 200 million speak Russian and 100 million German as a native language).Many people believe that the English language is rather an easy one to learn because it doesn't havesuch a difficult grammar as modern Russian, German or Greek.
But it is true only by half. One shouldn'tforget the problems of English spelling, pronunciation and prepositions. Learning any foreign language isnot an easy thing. If you want to master a foreign language, you must be ready to make efforts and bepatient.Words and Phrases:settlement - поселениеto spread- распространятьсяthe number of - числоin the course - в процессеto increase - увеличиватьincrease-увеличениеone shouldn't forget - нельзя забыватьto establish - упрочить, устанавливатьwide-spread- широко распространенныйsecond to - быть вторым послеto make effort - прилагать усилияto master a language- овладевать языковpatient -терпеливыйrather - слишкомBRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH"England and America are the two countries separated by the same language."G. B.
ShawThese two varieties of the English language are very similar to each other. Many people believe thatthese are the same languages with only a few minor differences in grammar, spelling and vocabulary.Differences in pronunciation are sometimes very noticeable, but most American and British speakers canunderstand each other without much difficulty.These differences emerged during the isolation of America from Great Britain in the 18th century. TheUnited States had long been the "melting pot" of the world. People of many nationalities came to Americaand they brought their native traditions and languages with them. Those people adopted the Englishlanguage and the very flexible English language took a lot of innovations from them. Differences betweenEnglish and American English are rapidly disappearing nowadays.
Modern British English is stronglyinfluenced by American English. A lot of Americanisms from the language of advertizing, journalism,technology, rock music and show business have come into everyday speech of British people.There are too many common words which are spelled differently in England and the US, for example:American I Word Translation |thru_через__Britishthrough_caliber_center__fiber__theater__check_program__organizationhonor__behavior__labor__traveler_калибр_calibre__центр__centre_волокно__fibre_театр_theatre_чек__cheque_программа__programmeорганизация__ organisationчесть__honour_поведение__behaviour_труд_labour_путешественник traveller_But American English is not British, they say.
Compare the list of some other words:_In AmericaWord Translation_In England__railroad__железная дорога__railway_conductorпроводник ж.д.__railway guardticket windowбилетная жд. кассаbooking officegas__fall__side-walk__subway__store__truckelevatorбензин, газолин__осень__тротуар__метрополитен__магазин__грузовиклифтpetrol_autumn_pavement_undergroundshop_lorryliftSuch words as teen-ager, superpower, know-how, video, body building, shaping and a great dealof others are well-known all over the world.
There are a lot of such words in Britain and American English.It is highly advisable for the people who learn English to know both forms of those words which are inmost common usage.Words and Phrases:similar - похожий, подобныйteen-ager- подростокthe same - одинаковый, похожийnoticeable - заметныйto believe - верить, полагатьto advise- советоватьto emerge - возникать, появлятьсяadvice - совет"melting pot" - зд.: смесительadvisable- рекомендуемыйflexible- гибкийa great deal of - множествоto adopt- принимать, усваиватьa lot of - многоinnovation - новшество, нововведениеvariety -разновидностьknow-how - умение; знание дела; секреты производстваTasks:1.
Answer the following questions.a. Are differences in pronunciation sometimes noticeable?b. What are the reasons of differences between modern British English and American English?c. Are differences between the two languages disappearing or increasing ?d. Is modern British English strongly influenced by American English nowadays?2.
Make up short dialogues about British and American English.BRITAIN: PAST AND PRESENTGreat Britain is a purely geographical name. People often use this name as the name of the country butit is not its direct meaning. Why is it called Great Britain? In France there is a peninsula called Bretaigne.When people from this province came to what they later called Great Britain they found some familiarconditions there and first of all its damp climate. Since this country was larg^ than their own Bretaignethey called it "Great Britain". The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain andNorthern Ireland. The United Kingdom includes four nations with marked differences: the Welsh, theScots, the English and the Irish.Each part of the UK has its capital.
The capital of England is London; Wales has Cardiff; Scotlandhas Edinburgh; the capital city of Northern Ireland is Belfast. Only those people who live in Englandcall themselves "English", Scottish and \/Velsh are called "British people" or "British", and Irish people callthemselves "Irish".Each country also has a national "emblem" or sign. The English emblem is a red rose. The Welshemblem is a vegetable or flower - a leek or a daffodil. The Scottish emblem is a wild plant - a thistle. Andthe Irish emblem is another wild plant - a shamrock. The United Kingdom's flag is the Union Jack.
It's red,white and blue. It is made of three flags-the crosses of St.George, St.Andrew, and St.Patric, whichrepresent England, Scotland and Nothern Ireland. The British national anthem is God Save the Queen(King).Almost every nation has a reputation of some kind. The English are reputed to be cold, reserved, ratherhaughty people who do not yell in the street, make love in public or change their governments as often asthey change their underclothes. They are steady, easy-going, and fond of sport.The fire is the focus of the English home. Even when central heating is installed it is kept so low in theEnglish home that Americans and Russians get chilblains, as the English get nervous headaches fromstiffness in theirs.Most English people have been slow to adopt rational reforms such the metric system, which came intogeneral use in 1975.
They do not want to trouble of adapting themselves to new.The conservatism may be illustrated by reference of the public attitude to the monarchy. The Englishare amongst the most amiable people in the world, they can also be very ruthless. They have a genius forcompromise, but can enforce their idea of compromise on others with surprising efficiency.They are generous in small matters, but more cautious in big ones. The Scots, the Irish and the Welshare not the English.
They have a lot of in common but all of them have their own national spirit, nationalpride and they cherish their customs and traditions.Words and Phrases:haughty people - надменныеto get chilblains - получить ознобto yell- вопить, визжатьstiffness - духотаunderclothes - нижнее бельеto adopt - приспосабливатьsteady- постоянныйruthless- жестокий, безжалостныйto cherish - лелеятьeasy-going- легкие на подъемcautious - осторожныйgenerous - великодушный, благородныйto house - вмещатьheadache- головная больfocus -центрamiable -дружелюбныйto focus- сосредоточиватьgenius - духTasks:1- Render the text in your own words.2.
Draw a parallel between Russian and English.3- Express doubts, hesitations or disbelief in the response to the text.THE ROLE OF THE MONARCHYThe age of democracy has not produced any significant revolutionary movement in Britain. Themonarchy survives, but has no power and does not want any Parliament to establish its rights. Thepowers of the Queen are nowhere exactly defined. Theoretically every act of the state is done in hername; every letter sent out by any government department is posted in an envelope marked "On HerMajesty's Service".