N. Kryazheva - The United States and the United Kingdom. Past and Present (pdf), страница 17
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To stew in one's own juice;c. To know what is what;i. Appetite comes with eating;d. Chop-chop;j. Every cook praises his own broth;e. Tastes differ;k. Too many cooks spoil the broth;f. To save one's bacon;I. Eat with pleasure, drink with measure.BRITISH EDUCATIONBritish education has many critics and much of the criticism has a political basis. The system issupposed to provide equality of opportunity for all, but it has some inequality.The Education Act of 1944 was based on the philosophy that every child is to be educated according tohis age, ability and aptitude. It places responsibility for carrying out this task on the shoulders of theschool and the parents.Now, there are about 12 million children and young people in full-time attendance at schools, collegesand universities. The great majority of schools are publicly provided or aided.In Britain education is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 15.
The academic year begins after thesummer holidays and is divided into three "terms", with the intervals between them formed by theChristmas and Easter holidays.Day schools mostly work from Monday to Friday only, from about 9 a.m. to between 3 and 4 p.m.Lunch is provided and parents pay for it. 28% of all children stay at school beyond the age of fifteen, only8 % of unskilled worker's children do so and only 1 % of children of unskilled workers receive full-timeeducation beyond the age of eighteen, in comparison with 34 % of children of people in the professionalclass.
This situation was generally regarded as unsatisfactory.Words and Phrases:to suppose - предполагатьresponsible - ответственныйgreat majority - большинствоresponsibility - ответственностьto attend - посещатьrespondent - ответчикattendance - посещаемостьcompulsory - обязательныйto provide - обеспечиватьteen-ager - подростокto respond - реагировать, отвечать age - з.д. возрастTasks:1.
Answer the following questions:a. Does British education have many critics?b. When was the last Education Act adopted?c. Who is responsible for children's education in Great Britain?d. How many children and teen-agers study in Great Britain?2.
Draw a parallel between education in Russia and Great Britain.3. Speak about your school years: a. your favourite subject or subjects;b. your school-mates; c. your favourite pastime.THE TEEN-AGER CULTUREMost of the problems teen-agers are seeking to solve were created for them by adults. People forgetthat teen-agers belong to another generation, with all the changes and problems, but also new ones, ofwhich parents are frequently unaware, but which teen-agers have to solve.It is not a new problem. What has appeared, probably for the first time in the Western world is a teenager Culture, a way of life with which teen-agers as individuals identify themselves and which they findmeaningful. The songs, the lyrics, the records, the dances, the clothes and the like are evidences of aclear dissociation from the adult world.Teen-agers have declared their independence of the adult world.
And in all this they are encouragedby the world of business. The teen-ager Culture is a very big business. Such phenomena as the Beatlesand their innumerable imitations would be impossible without the support of teen-agers and their industry.AEROBICSThe magazines for teen-agers are a very profitable industry, and a large number of TV programs aredesigned for the same market. The "aerobics" Craze for Youth.Tens of thousands of people apply annually to run in the London, Manchester, Liverpool, etc.
or otherMarathons. Gymnasiums flourish today, people take up the "aerobic " system of exercise. You'll not findthe word "aerobics" in many dictionaries but it means simply "with oxygen". "Aerobic exercise" is any formof exercises that increases your oxygen intake. Vigorous walking, jogging and running are forms ofaerobic exercises, as well as dancing, swimming and cycling.Apart from being fun aerobics has a scientific basis. There are several beneficial effects.
The heartbecomes stronger and larger. Blood pressure drops and blood vessels also become stronger and moreelastic. All this means that you are less likely to have heart attack. It will give you the healthy glen that isassociated with fitness. Finally there's the question of weight. Research has shown that runners haveweight less than nonrunners, even if they eat more, so aerobics will keep them slim, too.FREE SCHOOLSchool Rules:"You mustn't smoke or wear make-up".
"You must do you home-work on time"' "You mustn't fight in theplay ground". "You must... you must...", etc.Even if you like school, it seems that someone is always telling you what to do.That is why a lot of children don't like school and now a few teachers believe this is why some kidsdon't learn. People learn better and faster when they have ^ore choice in what they learn and when andhow they learn it. At Free school, people believe that school should teach what the children need andwhat to learn.
School should help a child to think for himself. There is no punishment for missing school.There are no compulsory lessons. Each child has one adult who follows his progress through the school.A lot happens outside school. They visit local factories, markets, shops, fire, police station. They visitexhibitions, go roller-skating, horse-riding, make trips to the country or the sea and go camping. Theystudy special subjects such as photography, metal-work, pottery.
Practical skills like painting andrepairing a house are all done as part of the maintenance of the school. But there are very few Freeschools in England.HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAINThere are different kinds of educational institutions in Great Britain including universities and collegesof various kinds. There is no single, universally accepted definition of what a university should be like.British universities are quite different 2nd each of them has its own syllabus. Universities usually selectstudents on the basis of A-level exam results [Advanced Level] and an interview.
But colleges of Oxfordand Cambridge choose their students mainly on academic merit.All British universities can be roughly divided into three groups, namely "ancient", "redbrick" or"modern" ("provincial') and the new ones. But mostly each °f these universities has its own approachto teaching. Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in Great Britain. They are called Oxbridgeto denote an e|itarian education. They date from Middle Ages.
Each consists of self-governing c°Heges.Some colleges tend to be rather keen to admit a few men who are very 9°od at football or some othersport, or sons and daughters of lords or million-aires. After all a rich man's son or daughter will be richone day and may give a ot of money to his (her) favourite university. Colleges are very rich. They haveWonderful books in the libraries, botanical gardens, observatory and an anatomy School and even richcollections of pictures. University is only an administrative body, which organizes lectures for allstudents of the colleges, arranges examinations and awards degrees. The teaching is based on thetutorial (that meansthe individual tuition) as well as lectures.
Each student has a tutor who plans hi work and requires him towrite essays and papers on the subject he is stuch ing, and submit them to him regularly about once afortnight for correction апн discussion. Until the 19th century they were the only universities in England,апн offered no place girls. But, nowadays, most colleges admit both men and women Cambridge is moredeveloped than Oxford in scientific studies. Four universities founded in Scotland i.e.
St.Andrews (1411), Glasgow (1450), Aberdeen(I4g4) and Edinburgh (1583) are considered to be theancient universities, too.During the 19th century various institutions of higher education were founded in large centers ofindustry such as Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds. Their buildings were made of local brick, so theygot the name "redbrick". But today they are referred to as "modern" or "provincial". There is no tutorialsystem there.
These universities accept students from all over the country and are financed by localauthorities. The government gives money to cover the universities current expenditure, but doesn't controlthem and they enjoy a large measure of academic freedom.The University of London also refers to this group.
It is rather old. It was given a Charter in 1836.Now there are about twenty colleges and schools of the university. The teaching is in the colleges, whichare placed in various parts of London. It is the largest university in the country with over 40,000 students.The New Universities were founded after the Second World War.
Some of them quickly becamepopular because of their modern approach to university courses.One of the new developments in education of Britain is certainly the Open University. Being founded in1971 it offers a wide range of courses at many different levels. The Open University was established togive educational opportunities to those people who want to continue their education at home. In itsteaching the Open University employs a combination of television, radio, correspondence tests,broadcasts and personal tuition.Colleges form an important part of higher education system in England and Wales.