N. Kryazheva - The United States and the United Kingdom. Past and Present (pdf), страница 13
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All ministers in the Government are appointed by her. But in reality everything thatshe does is done "on the advice of her ministers". Laws passed by two Houses do not become affectiveuntil she has signed them.The Queen Elizabeth II was born in London 21 April 1926. She was crowned at Westminster on the 2of June in 1953. She was the sixth Queen Regnant of Britain and second of her name.
Today the Queenis not only the head of state, but also an important symbol of national unity.Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy, i.e. the power of the Queen is limited by theParliment. But the real power is concentrated in the hands of the great trusts and banks and the tinysection of rich property owners. They control the land, industry, finance, trade, armed forces, police,judiciary and mass media. The Monarchy is used by the ruling class as an ideological weapon ofmaintaining the stability of the regime. In the law the Queen is the Head of the Executive, the Legislativeand the Judiciary.
She reigns, but does not rule, although the Queen is the third richest woman in theworld.Vocabulary:significant - значительныйto survive - выживатьto appoint - назначатьappointment - назначение, встречаto crown - короноватьin the law - по законуalthough - хотяto reign - царствоватьTasks:1.
Answer the questions.a. What is the first name of the Queen?b. Whom does the real power belong to in the UK?c. What do banks and trusts control?2. Make up short dialogues about the Role of Monarchy in the United Kingdom.The Queen Mother, Elizabeth Bowes Lyon was born in 1900 at the very birth of the century. In herlife she has been the greatest witness to the history.
Two global wars. Many personal tragedies.Considerable triumphs. The creation of new sort of world, which has moved from horse and carriage tospace travel, from ink pens to computers.Her eyes have seen it all. Around her are the Royals. Diana was her favourite. The Queen Motherhelped her a lot. In 2000 she was 100 and celebrated her birthday together with all Great Britain. But theQueen Mother died in 2002.The story of Diana, Princess of Wales, began when she was just 16 years old and met her futurehusband Charles, Prince of Wales, when he joined a shooting party at her family home when she was ashy teen-ager. But on September 8, 1980 her life changed forever.
The shy teen-ager blossomed into aRoyal Bride. She adored children and soon she became a mother. William was born on June 1982 andHarry two years later. She never handed her sons to nannies. She was 'Ways there, if they needed her.Diana and Charles seemed united in their love 0r their small sons. There were no hints then of thedramas to come.
But soon Verything has changed.Diana began to strike out on her own and carry out official duties without her husband. And peoplebegan to take her seriously. She began to transform She got 2,000 invitations to visit different placesevery year. Diana began to щ awards for her humanitarian work. She gave a lot of money to differenthospitals She had no fear of AIDS. Diana shook hands and warmly embraced patients Then "Di" turnedher attention to lepers. By the end of the eighties the Princess had achieved her objective.
The worldregarded her as a woman of substance She made a real contribution to her country and theCommonwealth. But by De^ cember 1992 the unthinkable had happened. The Prime Minister announcedto a House of Commons that Charles and Diana were to part. But Diana found hap- I piness in herindependence. Keeping tears and frustration to herself she always produced smiles and jokes for those inneed, especially children. She knew how important love was in people's lives, probably because she hadnot had much of it in her family and then in her marriage. And probably only with Dodi-AI-Fayed, itseemed, she had found a happiness that might have changed her solitude.She was a star. Diana was a source of beauty and glamour.
"Di" was a humanitarian. She had beenkilled in a car crash in Paris. She is irreplaceable. She was just 36.Peoples have lost a unique woman who will be forever remembered with love and admiration. PrimeMinister Tony Blair spoke of the Princes as a wonderful and warm human being and called her "thePeople's Princess".Words and Phrases:shooting - охота на дичьshy - застенчивыйhint- намекAIDS - СПИДto embrace -обниматьleper- прокаженныйobjective - цельa man of substance - самостоятельный человекfrustration - расстройство, разочарованиеmarriage - брак, замужествоsolitude -одиночествоadmiration - обожаниеTasks:1. Answer the following questions.a. Why does the Prime Minister call Diana the "People's Princess"?b.
What can you say about Royal family?c. What do you know about Princess of Wales?2. Speak about Diana's activities.PARLIAMENTParliament is the supreme legislative authority in the United Kingdom. It consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. They constitute оndifferent principles, do different work in different places and meet only on occasionsof symbolic significance such as the coronation and the opening of Parliament.The life of Parliament is divided into periods called "sessions". A session normally lasts for about ayear from late October of the last year to about the same date of the next year.The House of Commons is elected, nonhereditary chamber. The House of Commons has 659members who belong to different political parties, and its discussions are controlled by an official calledthe Speaker.The House of Commons meets every day but Saturday.
A light at the top of the Clock Tower, wherethe famous Big Ben strikes, is kept on for so long as the House is sitting. Only members of Commons areknown as MPs - Members of parliament. The Commons is more important of the two Houses.The House of Lords is nonelected, hereditary chamber. The House of Lords spends much time indiscussing general and particular problems connected with governmental policy and administration. TheLords can reject Bill once.Most bills are introduced by the Government. About 50 bills are passed each year. The preparationmay take many months.
At last the bill is ready to be submitted to Parliament. It will have passed by bothHouses of Parliament, one after the other.The two Houses of Parliament, the Lords and the Commons, share the same building, thePalace of Westminster. The present buildings of the Palace were erected between 1840 and 1852.Parts of the Palace including the Commons Chamber itself were badly damaged in an air raid made byfascists in 1941, and have been rebuilt since 1945.Words and Phrases:apart from - нарядуparticular - особыйto reject - отклонятьto submit - представлятьвластьoccasion- причина, случайsignificance - значениеfor so long as - покаnonhereditary - не переходящая по наследствуTasks:1.
Answer the following questions.a. What is the supreme legislative authority in the UK?b. How long does "session" last in the Parliament?с How many Houses does the Parliament consist of ?2. Practice with your partner asking and answering questions.THE GOVERNMENTThe party, which has the largest number of members in the Parliament, is balled the Government.
Thesecond largest party is called the official Opposition. The government sits on the right of the Speaker'schair in the Parliament and the Opposition on the left.The Prime Minister is the head of the Government. He is usually the leader of the party, which has themost members in the House of Commons and is an e,ected member of the House. He chooses from theLords and Commons about 60 men to take the main offices and form the Ministry.
20 men are chosenfrom them to form the Cabinet.The Prime Minister and the Cabinet represent the executive body. They ar responsible for directing thenational policy of the United Kingdom. The Prima Minister lives and works in his official residence No 10Downing Street. One0f the rooms is the Cabinet room, where the Cabinet usually meets once a week Ьщsometimes more often.The Cabinet and its committees work in great secrecy. No outside person i$ allowed to see anyCabinet papers until they become only of historical interest.The Government cannot legally spend any money without the permission of the House of Commons.The money the Government spends is the people's money.Words and Phrases:outside person - постороннийresponsible - ответственныйbadly - зд. оченьto permit - позволять, разрешатьpermission - разрешениеto damage - повреждатьTasks:1.
Answer the questions.a. Who is the head of the Government in the UK?b. How is the Cabinet formed?c. Where does the Prime Minister live and work?d. Is the Government controlled by the House of Commons?e. Whom does the executive power belong to?2. Speak about: a. the Russian Government;b. the role of our State Duma in our life;c. the Prime Minister of Russia and the Prime Minister of GB.CITIES AND TOWNSLONDONLondon is the capital of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and it is the largest city in the BritishCommonwealth. The name "London" is Celtic in origin. London was originally established by the Romans,as Londinium in the 1st century ВС, and became the capital of England in the 11th century.
It is "A City"which arose from a number of towns and villages.lt survived the Plaque which killed nearly 100,000people and the Great Fire which followed. Little damage occurred during World War I, but World War IIbrought tremendous destructions. Many buildings of great historic value were laid in ruins and to-day theface of London is changed.Actually there are several Londons: the City, the West End, Westminster and the East End.