N. Kryazheva - The United States and the United Kingdom. Past and Present (pdf), страница 19
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Imagine that you are to make a report about customs and traditions in Great Britain. While preparing ituse the main information. The plan must be available.2. Ask your group-mate whether she (he) knows anything about such traditions as "Trooping of the Color"and the "Changing of the Guard".3. Compare: a.
domestic traditions in Great Britain and in Russia;b. Russian and English breakfast.5. Answer the following questions:a. What do we have in common as far as domestic traditions are concerned?b. Why do people shake hands?6. Make up short dialogues about English and Russian traditions and customs.ETIQUETTEEnglishmen are naturally polite and are never tired in saying: "Thank you", "I am sorry", "I beg yourpardon".If he follows anyone, who is entering a building or a room, he will hold a door open and they havesaying "Ladies first".Gentlemen always shake hands when they are introduced to each other even if they have to cross aroom to do so.
Ladies rarely shake hands, when introduced. When a gentleman is introduced to a lady,she generally smiles, bows slightly and says, "How do you do!" It is her place to offer her hand or not, asshe chooses. There is a wide distance between rudeness and reserve. One can be Polite and at thesame time reserved of matters.Nearly all rules of English etiquette are to a certain degree elastic. For example, on formal occasions ahostess always stands at the door and a host nearby. Both shake hands with every arrival. On informaloccasions they both rise and go forward to greet each guest.When a visitor is ready to leave he or she simply stands but must not attract the attention °f everybodybecause his (her) going must suggest leaving to others and so start breaking UP of a party. She (he)must simply look for the host or the hostess and say good-bye.English people don't like displaying their emotions of joy, sorrow.
They seem *° remain cheerful underdifficulties.They are taught from childhood not to rush for seats in busses and trains, but take queues at bus stopsin a quiet and orderly manner. Parents teach their children to sit gracefully.No lady should cross her knees when wearing knee-length skirts. An arm akirrv bo is not a gracefulattitude nor is twisted spine. The proper way for a lady is to sit in the centre of her chair or slightlysideways in the corner of a sofa. She may lean back, of course, and easily her hands relaxed in her lap,her knees together or jf crossed her foot must not be hooked around the chair leg in a vine fashion.A gentleman may even on very formal occasions lean against the back of his chair but he must givethe appearance of sitting on a chair not lying at ease on a sofa.People should be taught how to wear clothes.
Fashion has the power to appear temporarily, but thereis one unchanging principle which must be followed by everyone who would be well dressed suitably andnot being dressed to a minute and following every turn of the latest fashion blindly. Vulgar clothes arethose which are too exaggerated in style or have accessories out of harmony with the dress and thewearer.All rules of table manners are made to avoid ugliness. To let anyone see what you have in your mouthis offensive; so is to make a noise, to make a mess is disgusting. Elbows are never put on the table whileone is eating. There are others table don'ts. Don't encircle a plate with the left arm while eating withthe right hand.
Don't push back your plate when finished. Don't lean back and announce, "I amthrough". The fact that you have put your fork and spoon down shows that you have finished. Don't everput liquid into your mouth if it is already filled with food. Don't wait until all plates are served, aftera few guests have been served, it is perfectly all right to start eating.If food has been taken into your mouth, no matter how you hate it, you must swallow it.
It is offensive totake anything out of your mouth that has been put in it, except dry fish bones and equally dry fruit seeds.Peaches and other very juicy fruits are peeled and then eaten with the knife and fork, but dry fruitssuch as apples may be cut and then eaten with fingers. Never wipe hands that have fruit juice on them ona napkin without first using a finger-bowl, because fruit juices leave stains. All juicy or soft fruit or cake isbest eaten with a fork or a spoon without getting it all over your fingers. Napkins should match the tablelinen and lunch napkins must be much smaller than dinner ones.The bread and butter plate must be put at the left side of each plate just above the forks.
They arealways removed immediately before dessert with salt-cellars and pepper-boxes. There are a lot of tablemanners and children are taught by their mothers every day. Teachers explain the order of the lunchesservice, afternoon teas without dancing and other afternoon parties, parties in the garden, how to set thetable and the places and so on and so forth.Words and Phrases:slightly . слегкаto display _ выражатьgracefully .
грациозноfullness _ полнотаakimbo . подбоченясьsideways . сбоку, бокомsuitability - удобствоblindly - слепоaccessaries - дополнительные украшенияto exaggerate - преувеличиватьugliness - уродство, безобразиеoffensive - оскорбительныйto lean back - отклонитьсяlap - подолto hook around - обвиватьin a vine fashion - как лианаat ease- свободноdisgusting - отвратительный, противныйelbows - локтиtwisted spine - изогнутая, сгорбленная спинаnapkin- салфеткаin queue- в очередьTasks:1.
Make up short dialogues.a. Imagine that you invited guests to a party. Speak about: a) seating at thetable; b) about toasts; c) about table furnishing.2. Say what information you've learnt from this text.3. Agree or disagree with the statements:a. The proper selection of guests is the first essential in all entertainments; I b.
Very silent people shouldbe sandwiched between good talkers; Ic. Dull people should never be put near clever ones.4. Finish the sentences: I a. If you don't know, whether to put on a ball dress or a dinner dress, wear... ;b. Whether to wear wool or velvet to a lunch wear... ;c. The duration of a formal visit should be ...
.New Year and Christmas holidayThe celebration of New Year Eve is one of the oldest rites known to many. jU|ju$ Caesar had setJanuary 1 as a starting date of the New Year. The symbol of the incoming year is the New Year Baby andNew Year Tree. The Celebrations are surprisingly similar to our own ones composed of equal parts ofnoise, songs and hard drinks. Many people spend New Year's Day resting. That is because they stayedup most of the night greeting the New Year.
Some went to parties at friends' homes or at night-clubs. Jollyfellow by the name Santa Claus usually brings giftsThis fellow gets his name from a man known as St. Nickolas. He lived in the North Pole, or may be inthe Western Europe, during the fourth century. He gave his wealth to the poor.
After he had died his feastday was celebrated with gift giving. The Dutch brought this legend to England and soon his Dutch name"Sinter Klaas" became "Santa Claus".But Santa Claus begins to visit every house on Christmas Eve. He climbs down the chimney andleaves a lot of presents.
Some people leave something for him too: a glass of wine and some biscuits, forexample.Traditionally people decorate their New Year Trees on Christmas Eve. They take down the decorationstwelve days later on Twelfth Night.Hanging wreaths at Christmas probably goes back to an ancient Roman custom of presentingwreaths as gifts.An old tradition is Christmas mistletoe. People put a piece of this green plant with its white berriesover the door.
They say mistletoe brings good luck. At Christmas British people kiss their friends andfamily under the mistletoe. There is another tradition on the Eve of Christmas. Some people lightcandles in the window. The Bible says that Mary (Jesus mother) had troubles in finding shelter on thenight Jesus was born. Now candles symbolize a welcome to cold and weary travellers.In Britain the most important meal on December 25th is Christmas dinner. Nearly all the Christmasfood is traditional, but a lot of traditions are not very old.
For example, there were no turkeys in Britainbefore 1800. And even in the nineteenth century, goose was the traditional meat at Christmas. But notnow. British Christmas dinner is roast turkey with carrots, potatoes, peas, Brussels sprouts. There aresausages and bacon too. Then after the turkey, as usual there's Christmas pudding. Crackers are alsousual at Christmas dinner. These came to Britain from China in the nineteenth century.December 26th is Boxing Day.
Traditionally boys from the shop in each town asked for money atChristmas. They went from house to house and took boxes made of wood with them. At each housepeople gave them money. So, Boxing Day comes from the boys' wooden boxes and is an extra holidayafter Christmas DaySt. Valentine's Day. St. Valentine is the saint of people in love, and St. Valentine's Day is February14th. On that day, people send V.cards and presents to their husbands, wives, boy-friends and girlfriends.
One can also send a card to an unknown person. But traditionally it is not recommended to writesomebody's name on it. Some British newspapers have a whole page for Valentine's Daymessages on February 14th.April Fool's Day is linked with the whole marvelous business of spring, the «turn of the sun andwarmth. In Scotland an old name for April Fool's Day was jKjckoo. For some reasons the cuckoo is asymbol of daftness. The return of the cuckoo and arrival of spring is connected with all this fooling.