N. Kryazheva - The United States and the United Kingdom. Past and Present (pdf), страница 29
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Manchester is the fifth largest port in Great Britain although it is 56 km away from the sea.155. It was the first city in England, which built its own airport in 1919.156. The manufacture of cotton goods was responsible for changing the town into the great city it becamein the last century.157. People who live in them cannot afford to have a house of their own.158. Law and custom in Britain support a clear separation between what is public and what is private.159.
To emphasize this division, people prefer to live in a house, set back from the road.160. British houses are thought to be very cold, maybe the coldest in Europe.161. If there is one living-room in the house, then there is a hall into which the front door opens.162. The house can be easily sold, if necessary and if the price is attractive.163. Most houses are sold on the open market by the "property developers".164.
This is probably one reason why so many people prefer to live in houses rather than flats.165. Many people who have no gardens of their own have patches of land in especially reserved areas.166. Newspapers some-times have articles about dogs who have done clever things such as saved achild's life,or travelled miles to find their owners after they have been lost.167. There are also many television shows, films,and stories about dogs, including Lassie and ScoobieDoo.168.
Because dogs are generally considered to be loyal and friendly, they are sometimes called "man'sbest friend".169. British people have always been known for their love of sports.170. Most people don't like blocks of flats because the provide the least amount of privacy.171.
It is legal to place bets on the participants.172. The Wimbledon championships in winter in which the best tennis players of the world take partattract crowds of people.173. Customs and traditions always held by the Englishman are present in his eating.174. Some people like to drink tea, but others prefer coffee, though tea is part and parcel of British life.175. The English are famous for the amount of tea they drink, "a nice cup of tea" is one of the mostcommonly heard phrases in Britain.176. Most of English people drink their tea, but give little thought to what actually happens when theypour water over tea leaves.177.
Scientific research confirms that using water, which is as near boiling point as possible gives thebest cup of tea since it brings out more of all those substances from the tea leaves.178. The pot is then filled to allow the tea to infuse or draw for five minutes English people seldom putlemon juice or rum in their tea.179. Why the Britons became addicted to tea when continentals favoured coffee is a mystery as yetunexplained.180.
The system is supposed to provide equality of opportunity for all, but it has some inequality.181. People forget that teen-agers belong to another generation, with all the changes and problems, butalso new ones, of which parents are frequently unaware, but which teen-agers have to solve.182. Apart from being fun aerobics has a scientific basis.183. Research has shown that runners have weight less than nonrunners, even if they eat more, soaerobics will keep them slim, too.184. Even if you like school, it seems that someone is always telling you what to do.185. People learn better and faster when they have more choice in what they learn and when and howthey learn it.186. At Free school, people believe that school should teach what the children need and what to learn.187. There is no single, universally accepted definition of what a university should be like.188.
All British universities can be roughly divided into three groups, namely "ancient", "redbrick" or"modern" ("provincial") and the new ones.189. Each student has a tutor who plans his work and requires him to write essays and papers on thesubject he is studying, and submit them to him regularly about once a fortnight for correction anddiscussion.190. The teaching is in the colleges, which are placed in various parts of London.191.
Some of them quickly became popular because of their modern approach to university courses.192. The Open University was established to give educational opportunities to those people who want tocontinue their education at home.193. In general Bachelor's degree is given to students who pass exams at the end of three or four yearsof study.194. Other teachers who have no title of "Professor" are entitled "Lecturers", "Readers", "SeniorLectures".195. When a university teaching post is vacant it is usually advertised in newspapers.196. There are lots of domestic customs, which go centuries back.197.
The oldest military ceremony in the world is the Ceremony of the Keys, which has taken place everynight at the Tower of London, for more than 700 years.198. Another tradition is sitting at a fire-place, which is found in every home.199. They shook hands to show that they did not have a sword.200. But one must shake hands when one meets a person for the first time.201. They talk about the weather because it changes often.202.
There is an interesting story about the word " marmalade".203. Pancakes are eaten by British people on Shrove Tuesday in February or March.204. Gentlemen always shake hands when they are introduced to each other even if they have to cross aroom to do so.205. There is a wide distance between rudeness and reserve.206. One can be polite and at the same time reserved of matters.207.
They seem to remain cheerful under difficulties.208. They are taught from childhood not to rush for seats in busses and trains, but take queues at busstops in a quiet and orderly manner.209. People should be taught how to wear clothes.210. To let anyone see what you have in your mouth is offensive.211.
The fact that you have put your fork and spoon down shows that you have finished.212. If food has been taken into your mouth, no matter how you hate it, you must swallow it.213. There are a lot of table manners and children are taught by their mothers everyday.214. But Santa Claus begins to visit every house on Christmas Eve.215. There is another tradition on the Eve of Christmas.216. Nearly all the Christmas food is traditional, but a lot of traditions are not very old.217.
One can also send a card to an unknown person.218. But traditionally it is not recommended to write somebody's name on it.219. You are expected to meet witches and ghosts that night.220. On November 5th 1605, he tried to kill King James I, but he was caught and beheaded in the Towerof London.221. The Shakespeare Festival in Stratford was held in 1769.222. A wooden amphitheater was built, two wagons arrived with fire-works, and medals were issued incopper, silver or gold with Shakespeare's likeness on one side.223. Schools, colleges and universities are closed on Saturday and Sunday.224. People who stay at home at the week-end try to relax, enjoy themselves.225. Week-end starts on Friday evening when people leave work and wish each other a nice week-end.226. People either go and watch or sit and watch the sport programmes on television.227.
The pub is the place where people can meet and talk in a friendly atmosphere.228. But in pubs there is a general atmosphere of warmth and cosiness.229. English people are proud of their traditions, that's why even modern pubs look as if they wereseveral hundred years old.230. The person who runs a pub (he is called "landlord") is employed by the brewery.231. The second peculiarity is that most pubs are divided into at least two separated bars: the public barand the saloon one.232. Children are not allowed inside a pub if the pub has no children's certificate.233. The BBC is financed by payments which are made by all people who have TV-sets.234.
Britain has two channels for presenting programmes on serious topics, which are watched with greatinterest by a lot of people.235. The British may be conservative about the times at which they take their holidays.236. Many games are English in origin and they have been adopted to other countries, but cricket hasbeen seriously adopted only in Great Britain.237. When looking at Britain today, it is important to remember the great benefits from the past.238. No other country has so long a history of political order, going back almost without interruption to theNorman Conquest.239.
There are at least five different Washingtons and each has its supporters who earnestly believe thattheirs is the only true Washington.240. New York and Washington, leading centre in the USA, have several distinguished art museumsforming the nucleus of a great national collection.241. The paintings and sculptures given by the founder, including works by the greatest masters from the13th trought the 19th centuries , have formed a nucleus around which the collection have grown.242.