N. Kryazheva - The United States and the United Kingdom. Past and Present (pdf), страница 24
PDF-файл из архива "N. Kryazheva - The United States and the United Kingdom. Past and Present (pdf)", который расположен в категории "книги и методические указания". Всё это находится в предмете "лингвистическая культура" из седьмого семестра, которые можно найти в файловом архиве МГУ им. Ломоносова. Не смотря на прямую связь этого архива с МГУ им. Ломоносова, его также можно найти и в других разделах. .
Просмотр PDF-файла онлайн
Текст 24 страницы из PDF
It is a wooded area of 2,000 acres that runsfrom the center of the city to Negroes fill the picnic tables, nature center and groves of the park, Negrocommunity calls the park sometimes "The Chinese Wall" and sometimes "The Iron Curtain". For allpractical purposes the community on one side of the park is white and upper income, on the other, blackand lower income.FAMOUS AMERICAN ART MUSEUMSNew York and Washington, leading centre in the USA, have several distinguished art museumsforming the nucleus of a great national collection.Many works by leading American artists can be viewed in the Museum of Modern Art in New York Citywhich has come to represent the "establishment" in the 20th century art.
Its original collection of modernart, daily film programmes and sculpture garden, with works by Robin and Matisse, have been discussedfor many years. Its collection of Picasso painting and sculpture is the best to be seen on that side of theAtlantic. It is home of some of Matisse's most exquisite interiors, some of the most exciting Gauguins andChagalls. There is an extensive display of the constructivist movement led by Malevich, and a collectionof surrealist masterpieces.The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gallery, opened in Washington in 1974, traces the evolutionof art from the birth of modernism in the 19th century through the most challenging explorations by theartists working today.
The core of the Hirshhorn's collection was the gift of Joseph H. Hishhorn, afinancier, philanthropist and art collector. He called his gift of art "a small repayment for as immigrants".The museum's exhibitions focus on individual artists, artistic movements and developments incontemporary art. The late 19th century American realist painter Thomas Eakins is especially wellrepresented in the collection.The most interesting museums of the Smithsonian Institution are the National Museum of AmericanArt and National Gallery of variety of art works were ac-uired for a future national collection. Themuseum reflects the nation's diversity >ver 250 years and contains a collection of 35, 000 paintings,graphics, folk art ind photographs of such American artists as Washington Homer, Jacob Law-ence andothers, featuring American life from the period of widespread westward jxpansion. The 19th centurylandscape tradition is represented by Thomas Cole, :rederick Edwin Church, and Albert Bierstadt.
One ofits highlights are the three panoramic views of the American West by Thomas Moran.The National Gallery of Art was created for the people of the United States by a oint resolutions ofCongress. Located in the heart of the nation's capital, the build-ng was designed by architect JohnRussell Pope to implement a dream long held |>y its donor, the financier and art collector Andrew W.Mellon.
Mellon started to col-ect paintings early in life and brought together a superb collection of art. Thepaint-ngs and sculptures given by the founder, including works by the greatest masters tarn the 13thtrought the 19th centuries , have formed a nucleus around which the collection have grown. He believedthat the gallery should bear not his name, but he nation's, and that its collections should grow throughgifts of art from private citizens. Mellon's hope was soon realized in the form of major donations fromSamuel ind Rush Kress, Chester Dale , Edgar William and many others.
Today the Gallery Contains oneof the world's finest collections of European and American paintings, sculpture and graphic arts, amongwhich are masterpieces by Leonardo da Vinchi, Rembrandt, Monet, Degas, Picasso, Dali, Moore.One of the largest and most comprehensive in the world is the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NewYork City. It was founded by civic leaders, philanthropists and art collection. In 1866 a group of Americansin Paris gathered to celebrate me 4th of July. John Jay, a prominent lawyer, proposed to create a"national in-Ititution and gallery of art". During the next four years they convinced American public tosupport the project and in 1870 the museum was opened. Its collections dumber nearly three millionobjects in every known artistic medium representing Cultures from every part of the world, from ancienttimes to the present.
Popularly wown as the Met, the museum is one of the most famous touristattractions in the city. It is also a major educational institution offering a wide array of programmes forchildren and adults. The Museum's collection of American art is the most com-jprehensive in the world.Contemporary American art became a particular concern fef the museum when in 1906 and 1911 GeorgeA. Hearn donated funds specifically designed for the acquisition of painting by living American artists.They have been the basis upon which the Met's collection of modern American paintings has beenformed.
The vast collection of American art includes paintings, sculpture, furniture, silverware, glass,ceramics, textiles and 25 unique period rooms featuring art from various time periods throughoutAmerican history.HARVARD UNIVERSITYHarvard University is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, founded 16 yearsafter the arrival of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. Harvard College was established in 1636 by vote of the Greatand General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and was named for its first benefactor, JohnHarvard of Charlestown, a young minister who, upon his death in 1638, left his library and half his estateto the new institution.During its early years, the College offered a classic academic courses based on the English universitymodel, but consistent with the prevailing Puritan philosophy of the first colonists. Although many of itsearly graduates became ministers in Puritan congregations throughout New England, the College wasnever formally affiliated with a specific religious denomination.
An early brochure, published in 1643,justified the College's existence: "To advance Learning and perpetuate it to Posterity: dreading to leavean illiterate Ministry to the Churches".The 1708 election of John Leverett, the first president who was not also a clergyman, marked a turningof the College toward intellectual independence from Puritanism.In the 17th century, Harvard University established the Indian College to educate Native Americans,but it was not a success and disappeared by 1693.Between 1830 and 1870 Harvard became "privatized".
While the Federalists controlled stategovernment, Harvard had prospered, but the 1824 defeat of the federalist party in Massachusetts allowedthe renascent Democratic-Republicans to block state funding of private universities. By 1870, thepoliticians and ministers that, heretofore, had made up the university's board of overseers had beenreplaced by Harvard alumni drawn from Boston's upper-class business and professional community andfunded by private endowment.During the twentieth century, Harvard's international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment andprominent professors expanded the university's scope.
Explosive growth in the student populationcontinued with the addition of new graduate schools and the expansion of the undergraduate program.Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the mostprominent school for women in the United States.In the decades immediately after the Second World War, Harvard reformed its admissions policies as itsought from a more diverse applicant pool.
Whereas Harvard "feeder schools" such as Exeter andAndover, increasing numbers of international, minority, and working-class students had, by the late1960s, altered the ethnic and socio-economic makeup of the college. Nonetheless, Harvard'sundergraduate population remained predominantly male, with about four men attending Harvard andRadcliffe admissions in 1977, the proportion of female undergraduates steadily increased, mirroring atrend throughout higher education in the United States. Harvard's graduate schools, which had acceptedfemales and other groups in greater numbers even before the college, also became more diverse in thepost-war period.Today, Harvard is considered to be one of a handful of the world's premier centers of higher learning.Harvard today has nine faculties, namely: the Faculty of Arts and Sciences I and its sub-faculty, theSchool of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the Harvard I Division of Continuing Education, includingHarvard Extension School and Har-I vard Summer School, the Faculty of Medicine, including the MedicalSchool and I the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard Law School and Harvard Busi-I nessSchool.
Harvard has several athletic facilities.The Harvard University Library System, centered in Widener Library in Har-I vard Yard and comprisingover 80 individual libraries and over 15 million volumes, I is considered the fourth largest library collectionin the world, after the Library of I Congress, the British Library, and the French Bibliotheque Nationale.Harvard I describes its library as the "largest academic library in the world" and prides itself I for being theonly one of the world's five "mega-libraries" to have open stacks.The US News and World Report's "America's Best Colleges 2008" ranked | Harvard as the mostselective undergraduate college in the United States, and second in rank of the best national universities.YALE UNIVERSITYYale University is a private university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Founded in 4701 as the CollegiateSchool, Yale is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and is a member of theIvy League. Yale has educated five US president as well as many foreign heads of state. In 1861, theGraduate I School of Arts and Sciences became the first US school to award the Ph. D.The university's assets include a $17 billion endowment (the second-largest of any academicinstitution) and more than a dozen libraries that hold a total of 12.5 | million volumes (making it accordingto Yale, the world's second-largest university I library system). Yale has 3,300 faculty members, whoteach 5,300 undergraduate students and 6,000 graduate students. Yale offers 70 undergraduate majors:few of the undergraduate departments are pre-professional.
About 45% of Yale undergraduates major inthe arts and humanities, 35% in the social sciences, and 20% in the sciences. All tenured professorsteach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Yale's graduate programsinclude those in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences -covering 53 disciplines in the humanities,social sciences, biology, physical sciences, and engineering - and those in the Professional Schools ofArchitecture, Art, Divinity, Drama, Forestry & Environmental Sciences, Law, Management, Medicine,Music, Nursing, and I Public Health.Yale's residential college housing system is modeled after those of Oxford and Cambridge. Eachresidential college houses a cross-section of the under-1 graduate student body and has its own facilities,seminars, resident faculty and I graduate fellows.Yale and Harvard have been rivals in academics, rowing, and football for most of their history,competing annually in The Game and the Harvard-Yale Regatta.CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYCalifornia Institute of Technology (shortly Caltech) was founded in 1891 by Amos Troup as college inPasadena, state California.