Lectures on Britain - 7 (Lectures on Britain)
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LECTURE № 7Literature.British literature is so rich that it is absolutely impossible to describe itshistory and its main writers, poets and dramatists in any detail. Like many otherworld literatures English literature grew up from the rich and diverse folklore ofthe nations in this country. Rich narrative traditions of ballads, songs and talescome to us through literature, writings of English authors ranging from Chaucer,Shakespeare and Ben Johnson, to William Yeats, Burns and Bernard Shaw andJohn Milton.Everyone in the childhood read Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe (16601731), Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), historical novels ofWalter Scott, Oliver Twist and David Copperfield by one of the greatest Englishwriters of the 19th century Charles Dickens (1812-1870).The Bronte sisters were exceptional writers of poetry as well as fiction.“Wuthering Heights” by Emily Bronte and Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte are readand enjoyed even now.Thomas Hardy’s and Jane Austen’s novels reflected different sides of English lifeof the 19th century.
It was not easy for 19 century women- writers to sell theirbooks under their real names. Many of them used male pseudonyms: George Eliot(1819-1880) never used her real name which was Mary Ann Evans. Her booksshow a detailed picture of provincial Victorian society with humour and feeling.A Scottish writer Robert Stevenson (180-94) wrote famous adventure novels, andan English novelist William Thackeray (1811- 63) in his brilliant satire “VanityFair” became the master of great individuality.Jerome, K. Jerome (1859-1927) wrote two humorous books, one of which“Three Men in a Boat” is favourite with the Russian students.Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) wrote a lot of poems, stories and tales, whichchildren of all the countries still enjoy today. His stories about Mowglii and finestanimal stories inspired American Walt Disney to create wonderful cartoon films.Kipling was the first English writer to be awarded with the Nobel Prize in1907.
An Irish-born author Oscar Wilde (1854 - 1900) created novels, stories andplays, still staged in Russian theatres.There were many wonderful poets in Britain. Romantic poets Baron and Shellyinfluenced the poetry of Alezander Pushkin.Scottish poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) whom we know in wonderful translationsby Marshak grew up on the folklore traditions of his land. R.Burns managed tocombine in his simple poems tenderness, rich humour, lyric and love for freedomof the Scottish folklore heroes. His birthday is celebrated in Scotlandas the national holiday and his statue and house in Dumfries are theplaces, visited by his numerous admirers.The 20th century gave a great number of talented British writers,poets and dramatists: poet Thomas Eliot (1888-1965), novelist anddramatist John Galsworthy (1867-1933), David Lawrence, satirist Aldous Huxley(1894-1963), Sean O’Keisi, Richard Oldington, novelist, dramatist and essayistJohn Priestly (1894-1984), Evelyn Waugh (1903-66), Graham Green (1904-91),Irish novelist James Joyce (1882-1941) and many others.Joyce’s novel Ulysses started the development of modernist literature inBritain.
In this novel and later in Einnegan’s Wake Joyce revolutionized thetechniques of fiction – writing, introducing the “stream of consciousness,”inventing words and experimenting with syntax.Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) in her novels also experimented with the stream-ofconsciousness narrative technique.An Irish playwright Sean O’Casey wrote a number of tragicomedies, blendingrealism with symbolism and poetry with vernacular speech.The poetic writings of William Yeats (1865-1939), marked with the Nobel Prizein 1923, had a great influence on the development of the British poetry of the 20thcentury. All his books of verses were full of the Irish spirit, brilliant vigoroustechnique, the combination of western viewpoint with national philosophy andtraditions.The War of the World by H. Wells (1866-1946) became the first great works ofscience fiction.William Somerset Maugham (1874-1965) is considered to be the best shortstory writer in English.
Many of his stories, together with novels andplays have been dramatized and became very fashionable andsuccessful.Agatha Christie ( 1890, the world’s most successful and best-knowndetective writer, occupies a special place in British literature. Duringher long writing career she wrote over 83 books including 66detective novels and 14 short story collections.
Her detective novelswere translated into every major language and tens of millions of her books weresold. Her little Belgian detective Poirot became as popular as Sherlock Homes byArthur Conan Doyle. Poirot and her other detectives have also appeared in many ofthe popular films, radio programmers and stage plays, based on her books.In the late 1950s John Osborne, one of a group of so-called Angry YoungMen, achieved fame as an author of tough realistic drama about working class life.Iris Murdoch gained an international reputation for her “psychological detectivestories’.Sir Arthur Clarke created a number of science fiction books but probably becamebest known for his book “A Space Odyssey” which was made into an extremelypopular film.English literature influenced the literatures of America, Europe, Russia and manyother world countries.
It also gave rise to the young literatures of former Britishcolonies. For example, Paul Scot’s novels show the last years of the Britishpresence in India, Alan Paton, Jack Cope, Alex La Guma wrote about the racialrelationships in South Africa. Chinua Achebe described the tribal life in Nigeria.Nadina Gordimer, a white author from South Africa, was rewarded with theNobel Prize in 1991 as the greatest English writer of her time.MusicBecause of its location and other economic factors, London is one of the mostimportant cities for music in the world: it has several important concert halls and isalso home to the Royal Opera House, one of the worlds leding opera house.Britain also supports a number of major orchestras including the BBC SymphonyOrchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.A prolific composer of the 20th century Andrew Lloyd Webber has dominated theWest End for a number of years and his musicals have travelled to Broadway inNew York and around the world, as well as being turned into films.Pop music in Britain is an important part of British culture.
It is mainly a mixtureof styles. It is difficult to find people who don’t listen to music at least for pleasureso it is not surprising, that music can be an instrument of social influence andchange.In the 20th century American influences became most dominant in popular music,with young performers producing their own versions of American music. This ledto the explosion of the 'British Invasion' of America of the early 1960s, withmovements on one side of the ocean being exported to the other.
The UK as oneof the two main countries in the development of “rock and roll” along with the US,and has provided bands and singers including The Beatles, the Rolling Stones, LedZeppelin, The Who, Quo, Pink Floyd, Queen, Elton John, Iron Maiden, StatusQua, and many others.As a result the United Kingdom remained a major source of musical innovationand participation in the modern time.Answer the following question:1. When was the term ballad used in its present sense?2. What is one of the oldest printed fairy tales in England?3. What important information does the British folklore contain?4. What English fairy tales and legends do you know?5. Which English writers do you know?6. Which English writers have you read in English?7.
What do you know about UK Theater?8. Have you read or seen any Shakespeare plays?9. Have you seen any B. Shaw’s plays?2. Translate the following sentences into English:1. Главная причина уникальности культуры Великобритании лежит наповерхности.2.
Большинство английских сказок существовали только в устной форме.3. Сказки с одинаковыми сюжетами и героями можно обнаружитьпрактически во всех европейских культурах.4. Баллады можно считать богатым источником информации об истории,общественной жизни, чувствах и ценностях англичан.5. Легенды о короле Артуре начали появляться в 12 веке и, возможно, в ихоснове лежат предания о предводителе кельтов 5 или 6 веков, защищавшегострану от саксонского нашествия .6.Самые древние баллады о Робин Гуде относятся к 15 веку.
Его имя впервыеупоминается в английской литературе в поэме Вильяма Лэнгланда,написанной в 1377 году, и позже в 18 веке в правительственных документах.7. Можно с уверенностью сказать, что Робин Гуд действительно был похожна человека, описанного в старинных балладах.8. Великий шотландский поэт Роберт Бернс любил свою родину, своихсоотечественников и писал, в основном, о них.9. В 1718 году, когда английскому писателю Даниэлю Дэфо было уже около60 лет, он встретил моряка, который пробыл много лет один на необитаемомострове около Чили.10. Необычные приключения моряка Селкирка захватили его воображение, иДэфо написал историю человека, потерпевшего кораблекрушение.
Он выбралостров в другой части мира и создал вымышленный образ своего герояРобинзона Крузо.11. Мастерство журналиста позволило Дэфо создать очень правдивую иувлекательную историю. Книга имела грандиозный успех. Читателиповерили в реальность описанного.Suggested themes for the projects (compositions) on the UK life (5-12 pp).1. Important scientific and technological advances made by people from the UK2. Scientific research3. Cultural life.4. Music.5. Literature and writers6. Museums and interesting sights7. National life and characters8.