Lectures on Britain - 5 (Lectures on Britain), страница 3

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Theword "pub" is short for "public house". Pubs are so popular in the UK that there areover 60,000 pubs there (53,000 in England and Wales, 5,200 in Scotland and 1,600in Northern Ireland). Pubs are an important part of British life. People talk, eat,drink, meet their friends and relax there.English Customs are reflected in popular British Holidays.Christmas Eve and Christmas Day.In England less emphasis is placed on Christmas Eve than in other countries,much more is made on Christmas Day. Carol singing Christmas songs , midnightchurch services and going out to the pub are some of the activities that manyfamilies enjoy.After the English Revolution in 1647 the English parliament passed a law thatmade Christmas illegal. All festivities were banned by the Puritan leader OliverCromwell, who considered feasting on what was supposed to be a holy day to beimmoral.

The ban was lifted only when Cromwell lost power in 1660.During Queen Victoria's reign Christmas became a time for gift giving and aspecial season for children.December 26 is Boxing Day – the day of giving gifts.Easter is a festival that takes place on the first Sunday after the full moon.Guy Fawkes Day - November the 5th. Guy Fawkes’ Day is also known as 'BonfireNight' or 'Fireworks Night'. In 1605 on the 5th of November Catholic Guy Fawkesand his fellow conspirators (60 in all) attempted to kill King James I and theMembers of Parliament. This conspiracy arose as a reaction to the persecution ofCatholics under the rule of King James, a Protestant.

They hid 36 barrels ofgunpowder in the cellars of the Houses of Parliament and were going to blow upthe Houses of Parliament. But one of the plotters betrayed the conspiracy in a letterto his brother-in-law who told the government about the plotter’s plans. Fawkeswas caught with a box of matches in his pocket. Some conspirators fled but manywere killed or arrested. Nine members, including Fawkes, were hung and quarteredin January 1606.Parliament made the 5th November a day of Public celebrated with fireworks andbonfires.

Today children still make stuffed figures with masks of Guy Fawkes.They call these figures guys and display them in the streets.November the 5th is also called the Ringing Day because it is appointed forthe church bells to ring for the whole day.One of the largest events in the UK is the Bridgewater Carnival. The procession isheld each year on the Thursday nearest to November 5.

It is an illuminatedprocession that takes about two hours to pass.Bank Holidays - public holidays when banks, post offices, shops and someattractions are closed. Bank holidays always occur on Monday.Midsummer Day - 24th June - ceremonies in honour of the Sun have been heldfrom the earliest times. This day is preceded by Midsummer Night whensupernatural beings are said to wander about.Some holidays of different parts of the UK became the public holidays celebratedall over the world.St.

George Day – the Saint of England. According to the legend George was aknight who saved the princess from a dragon. For this her father, the King gaveGeorge his daughter to marry and a gold cross to wear. Since that time KingRichard 1 (the Lionheart) adopted a cross as a uniform for his soldiers. We can seearedcrossontheUKnationalflagThe flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is acombination of more flags.There is also the theory that the name Union Jack came from King James,whose name is Jacobus in Latin.The parts of the flag:1.

St George's Cross (England), St.Andrew’s – the Saint id Scotland and St. Patrickthe Saint of North Ireland at the time of the Roman Empire.+St.Patrick's Day - March 17th. is celebrated outside too (E.g. in Moscow).St David's Day - March 1st St. David (520-588), or Dewi as he is called in Welsh,is the patron saint of Wales since the 12th century. He founded twelve monasteriesacross the country and now about 5 churches are dedicated to him. The flag ofSaint David (a gold cross on a black field) is a very important part of thecelebrations in Wales.The Highland games are events held throughout the year in Scotland as a way ofcelebrating Scottish and Celtic culture and heritage, especially that of the ScottishHighlands. Certain aspects of the games are so well known as to have becomeemblematic of Scotland, such as the bagpipes, the kilt, and the heavy events.Edinburgh Festival (began in 1947) in August and early September.

The whole cityturns into carnivals, international theaters, concerts and singing, and music..

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