41937 (Осуществление интеграции Украины в ЕС), страница 3

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Today the European Union enters a new stage of integration. There are serious changes in directions of unification of tax systems, rapproachement of legislations, the uniform currency - euro is entered. In one number{line} with economic there are political, social and environmental problems, problems of human rights and problems of safety. It is a question of creation in the nearest year not only economic and currency, but also the political union of these countries. I.e., today we observe багатофакторність developments of the European Union, and together with it{this} is also increase of its{his} role and a place in global economy.

It is clear, that this association very attractive to Ukraine as young European state. Therefore as one of the most actual tasks of Ukraine acts ассоциированное membership in the European Union.

Directing the sights to the Europe, it is necessary to remember, that integration of the country into economic is a consecutive solving of problems which provide first of all national interests of the country as a whole. This problem cannot be solved without taking into account foreign policy interests and intraeconomic reference points. And only after there will be precisely enough certain basic elements of national external and internal economic policy, it will be possible to determine scales of integration into the world economy.

When based on unity of economic and political interests of Ukraine already made its real steps, it will be possible to speak about entirely certain tendency of expansion and development of its integration into the European structures.

Strategy of Ukraine lays in approach of the all-European structures two parallel rates - directly and through membership in the Central European establishments.

Under these conditions of special value there appears a problem of debugging of relations with such international economic organizations and groupings, as the European Union (EU), the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (ЄБРР), European Council (СЕ), Central European Iitiative (ЦЕИ), the Organization for Safety and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Economic Commission of the United Nations Europe, the International Currency Fund (IMF), the World Bank (СБ).

Integration into the European Union will accelerate and will improve process of economic transformation in Ukraine which obviously was covered, and membership in EU will bring not only significant economic gains, but also will positively influence safety of the country.

In relations of with EU Ukraine hopes on:

- Consecutive support from EU and its countries-members in a question of connection of Ukraine to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade;

- The decision of questions concerning connection of Ukraine to separate European programs, particularly in the field of power, transport, science and technical equipment, preservation of the environment, education, etc.;

- Maintenance of not discriminative access of the basic goods of export of Ukraine to the markets of EU;

- Activization of the financial and technical help of the EU countries to Ukraine and etc.

Let's examine chances of Ukraine in a context of its integration into structures of the European Union.

Participants of the processes stipulated by the further development of EU, become the countries which economy of which answer precisely certain criteria. Candidates for members of EU should meet the common requirements accepted by the European Council in June, 1993 in Copenhagen. Each country which wishes to be accepted should finish ability to protect democracy and the law, realization of guarantees of human rights, protection of minorities. Besides presence of functioning market economy, and also ability to sustain pressure of the market forces inside of the union is obligatory. Membership demands from the candidate also to accept all obligations which follow from participation not only in economic, but also the currency and political union.

Today in Ukraine there is a crisis phenomena in national economy, absence of legal base brake its promotion on the way to market reforms. Behind present economic parameters Ukraine does not answer criteria of the European Union. We should still long try to approach West-European economic, political and social standards. But political factors in definition of prospects of the European integration will play today much more important role, than economic. And this should be an advantage, as it was made in due time by economically weak Bulgaria and Romania which have begun integration "around" - political by.

Anyway Ukraine has real prospects of development of relations with the European Union. Our country the first among former republics USSR that accepted the Agreement from EU about partnership and cooperation in March, 1994. And since March, 1st, 1998 the true agreement has got force. The agreement covers three spheres of interaction - political dialogue, economic and cultural cooperation.

Basic value of the true Agreement for Ukraine - a deepening of integration with the European and transatlantic structures. Through the European market we can receive the newest technologies by means of which we shall produce{make} production,

Competitive in the markets of the Europe, Asia, the CIS countries. It is necessary to consider, that the European market is from above 500 million potential consumers which have high solvency and where probably to find a niche for the Ukrainian commodity producers. An example can become the countries - former members the ROAR which for last 10 years could reorient the economy on close cooperation with EU.

On performance of the true Agreement by the Decree of the President of Ukraine from June, 11th, 1998 Strategy of integration of Ukraine to the European Union has been approved. This strategy defines the basic directions of cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and the basic priorities of activity of enforcement authorities for the period till 2007 during which the preconditions necessary for finding by Ukraine of a full membership in the European Union should be created.

Strategy of integration of Ukraine to EU should provide ocurrence of the state to European political, economic both legal space and reception on this basis of the status of the associated member of EU that is the main externally-political priority of Ukraine in intermediate term measurement.

During integration of Ukraine into economic space of the European Union there is a requirement of the decision of some specific targets " towards to the Europe ". The politician promotion of Ukrainian goods on European market is the first question.

Among the basic directions of integration process - economic integration and development of trade relations between Ukraine and EU. In economic cooperation the Agreement defines{determines} the broad audience of spheres for cooperation between the European Union and Ukraine. The purpose of it{this} is support of process of economic reforms and restoration and constant development of the Ukrainian economy. For these purposes the Agreement defines{determines} 28 areas in which the European Union and Ukraine wish to increase and expand the cooperation, among which the industry, protection and encouragements of investments, гірничовидобувна and the raw industry, a science and technics{technical equipment} and т.п..

Cooperation has already begun. So, for example, in sphere of economy the European experts{auditeurs} work with the Ukrainian colleagues on transfer of a know-how to sphere of management of the companies and industrial and agricultural technology. In the field of a science and formation{education} the exchange scientific workers, teachers and students is organized and the general{common} projects take root. Cooperation in areas of management develops in such spheres as customs business and struggle against criminality, is spent an exchange of documents between a management{manual} in such technical spheres as standardization and statistics. The significant sums of financial grants are allocated for improvement of nuclear safety and on the decision of the problems connected with consequences{investigations} of Chernobyl failure{accident}.

But still much can be made. Advice{council} from cooperation fulfils recommendations concerning the further development of cooperation in all these spheres. The European Union and Ukraine have agreed, that the special attention will be given to those actions which can assist cooperation of Ukraine with the next states.

The European Union and its{his} states-members will play a significant role in granting the financial and technical help to Ukraine. The European Union is the main international donor of Ukraine which for the period of 1991-1997 has given to the help for a total sum 4061 million экю in the form of the technical help, export credits, loans and гуманітрно the help. On its{his} share it is necessary third of total amount of direct foreign investments. EU acts as the trading partner of Ukraine second behind size which is advanced only by Russia.

Significant event in attitudes{relations} of Ukraine with the European Union became acceptance of the general{common} strategy of the European Union concerning Ukraine which took place on next самміті EU on December, 11th, 1999 in Helsinki. The accepted strategy of EU concerning Ukraine - the document which expands frameworks of the Agreement on partnership and cooperation of both parties{sides}, передовсім in the field of foreign policy and safety, justice, internal affairs. It{she} acts as the new tool of attitudes{relations} between Ukraine and EU.

The document defines{determines} such strategic purposes of the European Union concerning Ukraine:

- To assist creation in Ukraine to the stable and open democracy with leadership of the law and creation of conditions over normal functioning market economy in interests of people;

- To cooperate with Ukraine in business of maintenance of stability and safety in the Europe and in ширшому the world;

- To strengthen economic, political and cultural cooperation with Ukraine, cooperation in the field of justice and internal affairs.

In strategy of EU the certain potential to development of this document, therefore the strategy of EU, in case of its{her} realization is incorporated, can give a push to essentially new quality of attitudes{relations} of Ukraine and EU.

Behind the essence strategy is the internal document of EU which beats off vision by the European Union of its{his} attitudes{relations} with Ukraine. It is obvious, that the European Union does not hasten{hurry} brothers on obligation to open a door before Ukraine, at the same time once again confirms, that considers{examines} Ukraine as the state which has made the European choice and congratulates the Ukrainian intentions to join the Europe. Thus, about ассоциированном membership of Ukraine in EU meanwhile it is not spoken in general.

Besides it is necessary to understand, that the policy{politics} of the European Union today in many respects is defined{determined} by strengthening{amplification} of problems of safety which are caused by political instability on the European continent, existing and potential regional conflicts. Therefore under these conditions entirely natural interest of EU to Ukraine has mostly political character, and the Ukraine is considered{examined}, first of all, as strategic jumping-off place on the European continent.

On a way of Ukraine to the European Union there are certain problems. So, the European Commission and the World bank have lead in Bruxelles conference of the countries-donors and the international organizations (total amount - more than 20), that take part{participate} in cooperation with Ukraine. Critically having estimated{appreciated} a situation in the country and the politician{policy;politics} of macroeconomic stabilization which it{her} spends the government, participants of conference have confirmed the readiness to continue the financial help to Ukraine, but under condition of, which its{her} management{manual} will incur obligations to carry out the intermediate term program of reforms in the field of the government, power, budgetary and a tax policy, development of a private sector, reorganization of systems of social security and public health services.

It testifies to desire of eurostructures to supervise an economic situation in Ukraine, to impose to us the vision of problems and ways of their decision. But it does not mean, that we should refuse integration up to the European Union. Economic cooperation between Ukraine and the European Union types{collects} turns{turnovers}, and it is necessary to support{maintain} and develop this tendency. In the same time should be understood, that together from positive, possible{probable} and negative consequences{investigations} of ocurrence in EU. Therefore the national concept of cooperation with the union requires carrying out of the additional analysis.

Trading opportunities and difficulties which exist between Ukraine and EU, consist in discrepancy to requirements of the Agreement on partnership and cooperation which is paraphed on March, 23rd, 1994 by both parties{sides}. The agreement has come into force since March, 1st, 1998 During to coming into force of the given agreement there was only a Temporal agreement on trade concerning, connected with trade, in that kind in which it{she} has been accepted by Ministerial council of EU on December, 4th, 1995 This temporal agreement has come into force regarding which concerns{touches} questions of trade.

Elements of the temporal agreement. According to the agreement on trade between EU and Ukraine it is put into operation such positions:

- A mode of the greatest assistance between the parties{sides} - participants of the contract as it is certain in item 1 of the General agreement under tariffs and trade. Nevertheless till December, 31st 1998 p., or from the moment of connection of Ukraine to COT it{she} has the right to use a mode more favorable in trade with the CIS countries, than it is stipulated by the agreement between Ukraine and EU;